Archive for the ‘Tax issues’ Category

Bankruptcy & the IRS

Filing for bankruptcy might be a solution to your tax problems. There are certain circumstances which allow for full or partial discharge of income taxes. In addition, in a chapter 13 you can pay the potion of the tax debt that cannot be discharged over a period of up to five years.


Depending upon whether you file a Chapter 7 or a Chapter 13 petition, you may be able to wipe out some if not all of your back income tax liability.


As a general rule, past due taxes related to unfiled or late returns and the related penalties cannot be discharged although there are exceptions.


If you are filing a Chapter 7 petition, generally, you can wipe out federal income taxes as long as ALL of the following criteria are met:


There is no fraud. If you filed a fraudulent return(s) or tried to avoid paying your income taxes, you will not be able to discharge the obligation.


That the tax liability in question is for a tax return filed at least two years prior to the bankruptcy.

That they were income taxes and not payroll or trust fund taxes.


That the actual tax return was due in excess of three years ago.


DSC00213 (Photo credit: BankruptcyLawyerStL)


That any tax deficiencies (that were assessed on those prior returns) were actually assessed at least 240 days prior to the filing of the petition in bankruptcy.


Lastly, that the IRS had not filed a tax lien for these back taxes on your assets. If there is already a lien, the lien survives the bankruptcy and the government can still seize the liened property to collect the tax debts.


Income taxes for the last 3 years are not dischargeable. If you file a chapter 13 bankruptcy case, you need to file your tax return or obtain an extension for the prior three years. It is good practice and actually required by local rule in St. Louis, Missouri, that every debtor lists the IRS and MODOR (Missouri Department of Revenue) as creditor on the petition. MODOR will then check if all tax returns within the last three years have been filed, and if not, file a motion to dismiss. You have then time to either file the tax returns or obtain an extension to file. In the East St. Louis area, the trustee might ask for copies of the tax returns for the last two or three years. In either chapter, you must provide a copy of the last filed tax returns to your trustee. If you are not required to file a tax return, you bankruptcy attorney will provide you with an affidavit that you don’t have to file a tax return.

In the event you decide to file a Chapter 13 bankruptcy petition, your back taxes usually have to be repaid under a payment plan. The usual time period is 3 to 5 years. However, if your income is less than your state’s median income, you can choose the length of the plan, if you are above median, your plan has to be 5 years. Generally, even with a payment plan you usually end up paying less than you owe.


As you prepare your payment plan proposal, the plan must be considered reasonable. It will be provided to the judge, who will be the person to ultimately approve it. Creditors and the IRS normally do not show up at the hearing. In calculating your payments, take into account the fact that interest and penalties stop accruing upon the filing of your Chapter 13 petition. The exception is for secured taxes (taxes that are secured by a tax lien).

It should be noted here that the automatic stay which comes into play when you file a bankruptcy petition applies to the IRS with respect to debts incurred prior to the petition. The IRS rarely applies to remove this automatic stay.


It should also be noted here that if you filed for an Offer in Compromise it will affect your time periods. The 240 day minimum time period, as mentioned above, begins from when the IRS disapproved the offer, plus 30 days.


In summary, if you are considering bankruptcy to get out from under a large tax burden, seek the advice of a qualified bankruptcy lawyer in St. Louis before proceeding. Whether or not these taxes can be discharged is a complex question and affected by numerous facts and circumstances. It is important that you do your own due diligence, gather all the information regarding your tax situation, including all tax returns and notices sent by the IRS so that you will have the information available when you seek the advice of a knowledgeable attorney before proceeding.

A Brief Overview of Nondischargable Chapter 7 Bankruptcy Debts

This article considers some of the debts that cannot be discharged by filing for Chapter 7 bankruptcy protection. It also provides a brief explanation why you may not discharge these debts during the Chapter 7 bankruptcy process.

Bankruptcy Attorney Tobias Licker

Attorney for Bankruptcy, Chapter 7 and Chapter 13

Many St. Louis debtors think that all of their debts can be discharged by filing for Chapter 7 bankruptcy. This assertion is false because the United States Bankruptcy Code features provisions that clearly describe debts that are not allowed to be discharged by filing for Chapter 7 bankruptcy. These provisions were established to prevent people from escaping certain financial obligations that are enforceable by a court or government agency.

To see why this is the case, let’s take a look at a few of the debts that can’t be discharged by filing for Chapter 7 bankruptcy protection.

–Domestic Support Obligations:

Domestic support obligations such as child support and alimony payments are not discharged during the bankruptcy process. The reasons behind this rule are complex. As a result, be sure to visit a St.Louis bankruptcy lawyer or a St. Charles bankruptcy attorney for more information. They can help you understand why these obligations are nondischargeable during the bankruptcy process.

–Civil Fines & Restitution Payments:

Missouri debtors may not discharge civil fines that were imposed by a court or federal agency as a punishment for breaking a law. This is the case because it would defeat the purpose of imposing the fines as a form of punishment. The same reasoning applies for restitution payments you must pay as a consequence of a criminal verdict filed against you in a federal court.

–Some Tax Debts:

For example, tax debts that are incurred as the result of fraud are not dischargeable. Moreover, business taxes such as payroll taxes, excise taxes and most customs duties are not dischargeable. Business taxes are not dischargeable during the Chapter 7 bankruptcy process because they are not considered to be a consumer debt that can be governed by consumer bankruptcy laws.

–Unlisted Debts:

Debts that are not listed on your Chapter 7 bankruptcy petition might not be discharged depending on the case law of your district. In the Eastern District of Missouri for example, not listed debt is not discharged in asset cases, but is discharged if the trustee did not recover any assets. As a result, we highly recommend that you visit a St. Charles bankruptcy attorney or a St. Louis bankruptcy lawyer to go over your bankruptcy petition. It’s a good idea to visit these bankruptcy lawyers because they can help you review your creditor schedule to ensure you have listed all of your debts and creditors on your Chapter 7 bankruptcy petition. Most bankruptcy attorneys will download your credit report for you, often for a fee the attorney has to pay to the credit report provider.

–Finally, you may not discharge a debt if your creditor successfully objects to its discharge. Creditors may only collect on a dischargeable debt if they file a motion and prove that the debt was somehow incurred by fraud, misrepresentation, or by an intentionally malicious act. Proving this can take some time and effort. As a result, most creditors don’t bother to try to object to a debtor’s discharge request unless it involves a significant amount of money.

However, please ask a St. Louis bankruptcy lawyer or a St. Charles bankruptcy attorney if you are experiencing problems with creditors who object to your discharge request. They can help you find ways to resolve this problem that can help you complete your Chapter 7 bankruptcy petition successfully.


Attorney, Mobile, Alabama
Arthur P. Clarke, Attorney for the Debtor, 
Mobile, Alabama
Case No.: 11-01439-MAM-7
Adv. Proc. No.: 11-00141
Dated: August 29, 2011
        Charles Baer, Assistant United States 
Attorney, Mobile, Alabama
Arthur P. Clarke, Attorney for the Debtor, 
Mobile, Alabama
This case is before the Court on the United 
States' Motion for Summary Judgment. The 
Court has jurisdiction to hear this matter 
pursuant to 28 U.S.C. §§ 157 and 1334 and the 
Order of Reference of the District Court. The 
Court has the authority to enter a final order 
pursuant to 28 U.S.C. § 157(b)(2). For the 
reasons indicated below, the Motion for 
Summary Judgment is due to be GRANTED and 
judgment should be entered accordingly.
        The pertinent facts are undisputed. Plaintiff 
Elizabeth Katherine Loving filed her underlying 
Chapter 7 bankruptcy case on April 8, 2011. 
Plaintiff's 2007 Federal income tax return was 
due April 15, 2008. Plaintiff filed her 2007 
Federal income tax return on February 19,
Page 2
2008. Further, the Court takes judicial notice 
that April 15, 2008 through April 15, 2011 is a 
three year period, and that April 15, 2008 to 
April 8, 2011 is a period of less than three years.
        On June 15, 2011, Plaintiff filed the 
underlying adversary proceeding asking this 
Court to  determine  the  dischargeability  of  her 
2007 Federal income tax obligation. In that 
complaint, Plaintiff argued that 11 U.S.C. § 
523(a)(1) does not bar the dischargeability of her 
2007 Federal income tax debt. The United States 
answered Plaintiff's complaint on July 15, 2011 
and asserted as an affirmative defense that 
Plaintiff's 2007 tax debt was excepted from 
discharge because it was due within three years 
prior to Plaintiff's petition date.
        On July 22, 2011, the United States filed 
this Motion for Summary Judgment restating the 
argument set forth in its answer that Plaintiff's 
2007 tax debt is nondischargeable. Plaintiff filed 
a response to the United States' Motion for 
Summary Judgment on August 16, 2011. In that 
response, Plaintiff asserted that she filed her tax 
return on February 19, 2008, a date that is more 
than three years prior to her bankruptcy filing. 
Also, she alleged that her 2007 taxes were 
assessed more than three years prior to her 
bankruptcy filing.
        A motion for summary judgment is 
controlled by Rule 56 of the Federal Rules of 
Civil Procedure, which is applicable to 
bankruptcy proceedings pursuant to Rule 7056 
of the Federal Rules of Bankruptcy Procedure. A 
court shall grant summary judgment to a moving 
party when the movant shows that "there is no 
genuine issue as to any material facts and . . . the 
moving party is entitled to judgment as a matter 
of law." Fed. R. Bankr. P. 7056(c). In Anderson 
v. Liberty Lobby, Inc., 477 U.S. 242, 106 S. Ct. 
2502, 91 L.Ed. 2d 2020 (1986),  the  Supreme 
Court found that a judge's function is not to 
determine the truth of the matter asserted or 
weight of the evidence presented, but to
determine whether or not the factual disputes 
raise genuine issues for
Page 3
trial. Anderson, 477 U.S. at 249-50. In making 
this determination, the facts are to be looked 
upon in the light most favorable to the 
nonmoving party. Id.; Celotex Corp. v. Catrett, 
477 U.S. 317, 323, 106 S. Ct. 2548, 91 L.Ed. 2d 
265 (1986); Allen v. Bd. Of Public Educ. for 
Bibb County,  495 F.3d 1306 (11th Cir. 2007). 
The moving party bears the burden of proving 
there is no issue as to any material fact and that 
judgment should be entered as a matter of law. 
Fed. R. Bankr. Pro. 7056(c).
        In this case, the material facts are 
undisputed and the issue presented is purely a 
matter of law. This Court must decide whether 
Plaintiff's 2007 Federal income tax obligations 
are dischargeable pursuant to 11 U.S.C. § 
523(a)(1)(A). The United States, as the moving 
party, bears the burden of proof  by a 
preponderance of the evidence. In re Fretz, 24,4 
F.3d 1323 (11th Cir. 2001).
        Section 523(a)(1)(A) of the Bankruptcy 
Code deems priority taxes, as defined in 11 
U.S.C. § 507(a)(8), nondischargeable. In re 
Morgan, 18,2 F.3d 775 (11th Cir. 1999).
Pursuant to § 507(a)(8)(A)(i) and (ii), a tax is a 
priority tax where it is a "tax on or measured by 
income or gross receipts for a taxable year 
ending on or before the date of the filing of the 
petition" and (1) "a return, if required, is last 
due, including extensions, after three years 
before the date of the filing of the petition," or 
(2) is "assessed within 240 days before the date 
of the [bankruptcy] filing." The Court will 
address each prong separately and then address 
some additional considerations.
        (1) 11 U.S.C. § 507(a)(8)(A)(i)
Under § 507(a)(8)(A)(i), "an individual 
debtor's debt to a governmental unit for an 
income tax is excepted from discharge if it 
pertains to a taxable year the return due date of 
which is three years or less  before  the  date  the 
debtor filed a bankruptcy petition." In re 
Jackson, 253
Page 4
B.R. 570, 573 (M.D. Ala. 2000). Thus, the 
proper measuring dates for § 507(a)(8)(A)(i) are 
the due date of the tax return in question and the 
date the bankruptcy petition was filed.
        As an example, in In re Newman, 39,9 B.R. 
541 (Bankr. M.D. Fla. 2008), the debtor filed 
bankruptcy on July 13, 1998. On that day, the 
debtor owed income tax for the taxable years 
1995 and 1996. The income tax returns for those 
two tax years were due on April 15, 1996 and 
April 15, 1997, respectively. The bankruptcy 
court held, in part, that the debtor's income tax 
obligations from 1996 and 1997 were 
nondischargeable because they "were last due 
within three years of the filing of Debtor's 
bankruptcy petition." Id.
        Here, Plaintiff's 2007 tax obligation is a 
priority tax pursuant to § 507(a)(8)(A)(i). First, § 
507(a)(8)(A)(i) applies to Plaintiff's 2007 tax 
debt because it is an income tax debt for a 
taxable year that ended before Plaintiff filed her 
petition on April 8, 2011. Second, Plaintiff's 
2007 tax return was due on April 15, 2008, a 
date within three years of Plaintiff's bankruptcy 
petition date of April 8, 2011. As a priority tax, 
Plaintiff's 2007 tax obligation is 
nondischargeable pursuant to § 523(a)(1)(A).
        (2) 11 U.S.C. § 507(a)(8)(A)(ii)
"[A]n individual debtor's debt for an 
income tax liability that was assessed within 240 
days of the bankruptcy petition is . . . excepted 
from discharge." In re Parker, 19,9  B.R. 792 
(Bankr. M.D. Fla. 1996). Thus, the pertinent 
measuring date for § 507(a)(8)(A)(ii) is the date 
of assessment. The Bankruptcy Code does not 
define assessment; however, "courts have almost 
unanimously adopted the Internal Revenue Code 
definition." 4  Collier  on  Bankruptcy  ¶ 
507.11[2][b][i] (16th ed. 2009). Under the 
Internal Revenue Code, the Secretary of 
Treasury makes tax assessments. 26 U.S.C. § 
6201(a). Procedurally, the Secretary of Treasury 
must first
Page 5
send a taxpayer a notice of deficiency and wait a 
statutorily determined period of time before 
making the assessment. 26 U.S.C. § 6201(a) and 
§ 6212(a).
        In the instant case, § 507(a)(8)(A)(ii) does 
not apply. The facts in this case are undisputed 
and no evidence has been presented to the Court, 
nor has any argument been made by either party, 
that Plaintiff ever received a notice of deficiency 
from the Secretary of Treasury. Thus, this Court 
possesses no evidence showing that an 
assessment occurred pursuant to the Internal 
Revenue Service definition. Nonetheless, as 
discussed above, Plaintiff's 2007 income tax 
debt is nondischargeable pursuant to § 
        (3) Additional Considerations
Plaintiff cites In re Gore, 18,2 B.R. 293 
(Bankr. N.D. Ala. 1995), in opposition to the 
United States' motion for summary judgment. 
The issue and decision in In re Gore have no 
bearing on the instant case. In In re Gore, the 
bankruptcy court focused squarely on whether 
the three year period detailed in § 
507(a)(7)(A)(i), a previous  version of § 
507(a)(8)(A)(i), was tolled by a debtor's prior 
bankruptcy filings. The language cited by 
Plaintiff speaks specifically to that issue and is 
inapplicable to these proceedings.
        Plaintiff also asks this Court to utilize the 
equitable powers contained in 11 U.S.C. § 
105(a) to rule in her favor. Section 105 of the 
Bankruptcy Code gives a bankruptcy judge 
discretion to "issue any order, process, or 
judgment that is necessary or appropriate to 
carry out the provisions of this title." However,
"this Court does not have a 'roving commission 
to do equity.'" In re Parker, 27,9 B.R. 596 
(Bankr. S.D. Ala. 2002) (quoting language from 
Chiasson v. J. Louis Matherne & Assocs., 4 F.3d 
1329, 1334 (5th Cir. 1993)). This Court is
Page 6
bound to apply the law as it is written and fails 
to find sufficient justification in the facts of this 
case to contravene the proper operation of § 
523(a)(1)(A) and § 507(a)(8)(A)(i).
        Therefore, it is ORDERED that:
1. The United States' Motion for Summary 
Judgment is GRANTED;
2. Judgment shall be awarded to the United 
States against the Plaintiff Elizabeth Katherine 
Loving as to the nondischargeability of 
Plaintiff's 2007 Federal income tax debt.

Discharge of Tax debt in Bankruptcy: 3 time rules to remember

To be able to discharge a tax debt, the tax needs to be older than 3 years, correct? I think this what normally people including myself normally remember about discharging taxes.  Let’s see on a recent case:

4.8.11 client filed bankruptcy hoping to discharge 2007 income tax. Correct or not? Well, there are full three years between end of 2007 and filing, is the debt discharged?

No, the attorney messed up. If you want to discharge income taxes from 2007 you calculate from the DUE DATE of the tax return, this is 4.15.08! (Watch out for extensions.) That means the earliest day to file would have been 4.15.11.  The attorney filed 7 days too early. This is the 3-year-Rule. 11 U.S.C. 507(a)(8)(A)(i)

What is the 2-year-rule then? The taxes actually must have been filed 2 years before filing. 11 U.S.C. § 523(a)(1)(B)

What is the 240 days rule? The tax must have been assessed more than 240 days ago. Remember 3 years from due date, taxes filed more than 2 years ago.

by Tobias Licker

Discharge of Tax debt in Bankruptcy: 3 time rules to remember

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